Inheritance of shares in LLC
Shares in an LLC are inherited in the standard manner, like other property, including by will, inheritance contract. At the same time, partners often discuss what rights the heirs will…

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The first rule of building a group of companies without signs of artificial fragmentation
Let's remember what we know about business processes? They have a beginning and an end, that is, they have boundaries in time. There is an “exit”, to which a unique…

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Convertible loan as an investment tool
Тtraditionally, investment transactions are realized through ordinary loans or direct investments (creation of a joint venture or purchase of a stake in an existing company). Today we will consider a…

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Direct and indirect costs or why it is impossible to count net profit by line of business
In companies with several divisions and branches, it is difficult to calculate the profit of each. You can subtract all expenses from all income and get some value. But this…

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Types of cash flows: operating, investment, financial
You count the money at the end of the month and see that the expenses are more than the income, which means that it has gone into negative territory. I…

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specifics of doing

The third rule for building a group of companies without signs of artificial fragmentation.

Let’s turn to business process notation again. Earlier we decided on the inputs, the activity itself, and the outputs (goals). However, in arbitration practice on artificial fragmentation of a business, there are several criteria at once for charges related to management and ownership. Rule # 3 is about management and owners.

What’s wrong here:

in order to avoid interdependence between the companies of the group, so-called proxies are introduced into the ownership structure – nominal, that is, they do not really participate in business processes, packaged in a specific legal entity. Continue reading

Opportunities for mutual funds for financing in a group of companies

All this is really applicable to mutual funds. A mutual fund, as a tool, has unique properties. However, the high cost of “maintenance” due to the need to comply with a number of mandatory procedures makes mutual funds inaccessible and inappropriate for mass use.

Having rich experience in structuring a business using bold decisions and non-standard combinations of various organizational and legal forms, we will make a small remark – the effects achieved with the help of mutual funds are purely individual. Continue reading

When you can’t do without an agency agreement

We have repeatedly talked about the pros and cons of an agency agreement (see, for example, here), pointing out the need for a deliberate approach to the use of the tool, having a strong justification for the business purpose. Indeed, as practice shows, the use of the agency model of building relationships in a group of companies is mentioned in more than 10% of all cases related to the artificial fragmentation of a business.

However, there are situations when the specifics of doing business and the industry do not leave a chance to avoid an agency agreement. Continue reading

Exchange-traded bonds for medium-sized businesses
It is no secret that in recent years there has been an interest of individuals in investing, the number of open investment accounts is growing, and the state is supporting…

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What is microbusiness
Starting your own microbusiness is much easier than it sounds. Whether you are making jewelry by hand, printing something for sale or sewing, half the battle is already done. It…

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Profit and loss statement: how much your business earns
Every businessman wants to know his profit and manage it. A tool called the income statement (OPI) helps to calculate it correctly. We tell you what it is, why it…

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